Spinel`s hues of Red, Orange, Yellow, Brown, Blue, Violet, Pink, Green and Black can be light to dark in saturation - transparent to opaque in quality - and undeniably brilliant. Spinel derives its name from the Greek work `Spark` meaning to spark or fire because of this stone`s brilliance. Black Spinel beads are colored by the stone`s content of elements such as iron, chromium, vanadium and colbalt. Spinel does not have a treatment or enhancement resulting in a natural brilliant gemstone of value. Spinel and Ruby, usually grown in close proximity to one another, have been confused due to their rich red coloring. Many Crown Jewels were later discovered to be Spinel rather than Ruby. Spinel beads are mined in Myanmar (Burma), Cambodia, Sri Lanka (Ceylon) Afghanistan, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Madagascar, Nepal and Nigeria.